Culture Building

15 Jun

Fantasy writers often talk about how world building is a crucial step and must be well done for a story to be believable. I think that culture building is equally if not more important. Everyone lives in a culture (there is no such thing as ‘natural Man’) and your culture affects every aspect of your life. If you don’t build a realistic culture people are going to notice; it might not be glaring but there will still be a subtle sense that something is off.

I’m going to go over a few areas of culture that are important to consider when you’re building.

Language

Language is almost insidious. Feminists know about language, as do gender studies people, so of course the mainstream writes it off (F.Y.I. our culture hates feminists). However, it is more than thinking about phrases like ‘man and wife,’ it has to do with concepts of space and time, numbers and personhood. Some languages have no words for numbers above two or three. You have one, two, many, and people in cultures with languages like this don’t differentiate between say twenty and thirty of something. They’re both many. Try to imagine an economy in a society that doesn’t bother counting above three. Even what colors you recognize depends on your culture and the words in your language. Read 1984 and be afraid, be very afraid.

Spatial Relationships

The Mixtec in Mesoamerica buried their dead under the floor of the main room in their house. If they moved they opened up the floor and took the bones with them. What does that use of space tell you about their culture?

Space is something we notice when we enter unfamiliar places. If we think that doors are in the wrong places or people use the other side of the street it can make us uncomfortable. Consider what the layout of buildings, towns and cities can tell you. A grid layout of streets implies central control and city planning while winding, narrow streets are evidence of more organic growth over time. The layout of a house can show gender roles in the segregation of workspaces or just the segregation of women to a separate area from men and visitors. Public and private areas of a house contrast what a family wishes others to see and what they want to say about themselves with how they interact on their own.

Buildings can display wealth and power. A palace is meant to impress everyone who views it and your rank in society determines which areas you are able to view. Temples, cathedrals, and important government buildings can make the viewer feel small and insignificant. Your use of space textures your world and positions your characters. It also allows readers to orient themselves or it disorients them, which isn’t necessarily a bad thing.

If you’re writing about people living in grand houses, research/visit some. Space can be used to control or convey subtle information and making your characters aware of it can add depth to their interactions with the people and world around them. And when I say space I mean buildings, yards, gardens, fences, roads, gates, walls, and the areas they enclose.

Social Structure

Bands, tribes, chiefdoms, and states are the four broad categories of social structure used to classify most societies. As they increase in complexity they decrease in equality so that you go from the egalitarian structure of a band where decisions are consensus based to a state ruled by a small elite class. There are all kinds of variations within each category, so anthropologists really hate these four even if we can’t stop using them. Rank in society is either earned or inherited; as you move up in complexity you also increase the likelihood that rank is inherited. Elites like to keep their power to themselves and their kin whereas more egalitarian societies put emphasis on achievement. With them you get to be in charge because you’re the best organizer, or warrior, or hunter.

So far I’ve written primarily about state level societies. They’re literate, they have governments, economic classes, specialized labor, standard weights and measures, and armies. If you’re writing fantasy, you’re probably dealing with state level societies. Evil dark lord with tons of minions? It’s a state. A kingdom with happy peasants? It’s a state. A peaceful village surrounded by fairies and gumdrops and fields of unicorns? Well that depends. It could be a tribe or chiefdom instead of a state depending on what other characteristics you have. If the village lacks an overarching government and you don’t have a separate artisan class or much inequality it’s probably a tribe. If it’s part of a network of villages, there is pronounced inequality, and you have tribute going to the person in charge of the network, it’s looking more like a chiefdom.

Kinship

I love kinship, especially fictive kinship. Fictive kinship is when you call your parents’ best friends aunt and uncle but it can get far more complicated. It’s probably best to stick to the basics for now. Kinship tends to be patrilineal or matrilineal, you belong to your father’s family or your mother’s family though in some cases you can get bilineal descent in which a person is a member of the mother’s line and the father’s line. Western cultures are patrilineal; you get your father’s name as your family name and you marry into your husbands family and take his name. In some cultures this is reversed and a man will marry into his wife’s family.

Who you can marry and what counts as incest is based on your kinship system. Yeah, I’m talking about cousin-lovin.’ Today Americans look down on first cousin marriages whereas they used to be common and desirable among the upper classes. Some societies favor first cousin marriage but only with certain cousins. Their definition of incest includes the cousins who would be within your line of descent. In a matrilineal system cousins on your mom’s side would be off limits but the ones on your dad’s side would be a great choice.

A lot of kinship comes out in your words for family members. In Chinese there are different words for your father’s mother and your mother’s mother. They also distinguish between your father’s older brothers and younger brothers. Confucian teaching put a huge emphasis on respect for elders and familial relationships, so it’s no surprise to see this level of distinction in kin names.

Gender (which has its own article), food, medicine, and religious practices are all major elements too and I could just go on and on. But the thought of having to think of them all can be daunting,  so it’s good to remember that you can make a major change in say one area and end up with a society vastly different from our own.

A quick example of great culture building? Terry Pratchett’s dwarves! Dwarf culture feels organic and has depth in Pratchett’s books even though they are comedies that parody our world. Pratchett takes the simple but crucial step of reversing the cultural meanings of light and dark: to enter the light is to be blinded and ignorant, to be endarkened is to see clearly. And they only have one gender! All dwarves are male! Yes, they have two sexes, that’s how they reproduce, but they only have one gender in the first few books.

Go on and try your own for fun, or share ideas below!

~~~

Jennifer Fitzgerald is the author of Priscilla the Evil along with several short stories and another novel on Fictionpress. She is starting grad school in the fall and until then is spending her time revising before continuing querying and doing some archaeology. You can visit her blog here.

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21 Responses to “Culture Building”

  1. svonnah June 15, 2010 at 9:38 AM #

    Fabulous article Jenn! This is stuff that I’ve never consciously thought about when writing and will definitely help me with a new idea I’m working on.

    • jenn fitzgerald June 15, 2010 at 11:28 AM #

      Thanks Savannah! I think that knowing the components of cultures really helps when designing a new one because you see how it all fits together 🙂

  2. Angela June 15, 2010 at 10:01 AM #

    I love how you use your knowledge in Anthropology to write this article. I`m currently taking a beginner`s course in anthropology, and I totally think that some of the stuff I learned will help me become a better writer.

    • jenn fitzgerald June 15, 2010 at 12:24 PM #

      It really does help because suddenly there’s all these possibilities you never thought of before, for me at least. And I keep thinking of all these little touches to make things feel more alien

  3. Becca June 15, 2010 at 1:32 PM #

    You kind of hinted at it in terms of buildings, and maybe this is obvious so there was need to mention, but i thought about religion; how it affects characters actions and decisions, their daily habits.

    Totally off topic: I’m reading Sussman’s The Lost Army of Cambyses by Sussman(random 35 cent pick at library sale) and thought of you and how your expertise plays such a role in writing! We’re lucky to have you!

    • Becca June 15, 2010 at 1:33 PM #

      oph, meant to say “no need”

    • jenn fitzgerald June 15, 2010 at 6:18 PM #

      yeah, i mentioned religion at the end because it can be such a huge factor or so interwoven with other aspects of life so as to be almost impossible to discuss on it’s own, and then you can have cultures with multiple religions 🙂

      I hadn’t heard of The Lost Army of Cambyses before, but it looks cool, I might have to check it out! I’m lucky to be part of such a great group! 😀

  4. Myra June 15, 2010 at 7:00 PM #

    Great article! This has made me reflect on things that I wouldn’t usually be conscious of. I agree with Angela–I’m taking an intro to anthropology class next year and now I can see just how useful it would be for my writing. 😀

    • jenn fitzgerald June 15, 2010 at 10:17 PM #

      Thanks! I’m glad to hear you’re going to take an anthro class too! Hopefully your professor will keep it interesting 🙂

  5. Catherine June 15, 2010 at 8:22 PM #

    Great article! However, I always considered culture building as a part of world building…. maybe that’s just me. 😀

    • jenn fitzgerald June 15, 2010 at 10:21 PM #

      Thanks! yes, culture building is part of world building, but i think of world building on a big scale of “okay, here’s some mountains, now which way do the rivers flow and which direction will the winds blow? how will that effect the weather systems? okay, now which species can live where” and culture building i think of as a very localized specific kind of world building that can differ between different sections of a country or social classes 😀

  6. Vanessa June 15, 2010 at 9:50 PM #

    I think world-building and culture-building go hand in hand. To have one without the other leaves you with a very bland, with little to no dimension.

    I’ve always loved learning about other cultures (which might also be why I’ve always had a penchant for history). I’ve never taken an anthropology class, but I did often take history classes. And you learn so much about different cultures, and different time periods, and everything that makes each century and each country so wonderfully different and interesting.

    This was a GREAT article Jenn! I loved it (and I also love how you mentioned the Mixtec of Mesoamerica!)

    • jenn fitzgerald June 15, 2010 at 10:28 PM #

      Thanks Vanessa 🙂 I agree that they go together, but I think of culture building as a small detailed part of world building. I’ve always loved history too and history goes well with anthropology because cultures have changed so much in the past couple hundred years but you can piece some back together from historical records. The funny thing is the way historians and anthropologists talk and fight about the past because historians so often look at individuals and anthropologists avoid them like the plague!

  7. Glaiza June 15, 2010 at 10:34 PM #

    Great post 😀 I’m taking anthropology and ancient history classes next semester, can’t wait.

    • jenn fitzgerald June 15, 2010 at 11:15 PM #

      Thanks! Those classes sound like fun! I wish I’d gotten to take more ancient history 🙂

      • Vanessa June 16, 2010 at 9:38 AM #

        LOVE ancient history!!! It’s a lot of dates, but there are so many interesting things to learn! (But really, I like all history…. makes me wish I had minored in history while in uni!)

  8. Chantal June 15, 2010 at 10:50 PM #

    Very interesting post! Lots of good advice on culture building ideas 😀 And good culture building makes for good world building!

    • jenn fitzgerald June 15, 2010 at 11:15 PM #

      Thanks! and I totally agree 😀

  9. Rowenna June 16, 2010 at 9:05 AM #

    Great article! And good points for any fiction, really–even if you’re writing about a “real” place (and how do we define real, anyway?) it’s good to be aware of all of these things! I find language really interesting–and didn’t realize how much was tied up in language until I studied French. Seeing how gender, space, expressions worked in another language makes you much more aware of how they work in your own! One professor I had commented how prepositions are the hardest to master in another language, because they carry with them that culture’s connotations and understanding of space. And it’s true–I still stink at knowing if one is “on” or “in” the bus in French!

    • jenn fitzgerald June 16, 2010 at 6:49 PM #

      Thanks! I love languages too,. Actually your comment makes me think of Bernard Worf, he worked with the Hopi and wrote about linguistic relativism, how concepts can’t always be translated and language shapes the way people think about the world 🙂

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